You can see how the atmosphere is distorting the sun’s image here.
Usually a cold layer is responsible. Light behaves differently through a cold layer laying on the oceans surface. This is exactly how “Green Flashes” occur. I didn’t see one at this sunset,but they usually occur during the winter when there is a cold layer laying on top of the ocean’s surface.
I did a series of shots using this Canadian Coast Guard ship as my primary subject.